THE BATTLE OF ROSLIN -1303
The Battle of Roslin which took place on 24 February 1303, surprisingly has hardly featured in the accounts of major battles that took place during the Scottish Wars of Independence. The two most notable battles of the period are the Battle of Stirling Bridge (1296) and the Battle of Bannockburn (1314). Stirling being the ‘Gateway to the Highlands’ has perhaps stolen the mantle of being the most strategic stronghold in all of Scotland particularly during the Scottish Wars of Independence.
And yet when we take a look at the events that led up to and during the Battle of Roslin, this should surely have a higher prominence in the history of Scotland’s fight for independence. It is possible that the battle did not get due recognition because the Scots army was not led by either of our most iconic heroes, Robert the Bruce or William Wallace. In fact, the Scots were led by John Comyn who was a bitter rival to Robert the Bruce. Perhaps for this fact alone, he and the Battle of Roslin have been airbrushed out of Scotland’s history. Remember that Robert the Bruce murdered Comyn on the altar of Greyfriars Church in Dumfries in 1306.
The Battle of Roslin
But be in no doubt that this was a huge battle. Early accounts suggest that the English Army was split into three divisions consisting of up to 30,000 men. On the Scottish side there were approximately 8,000 men. There are some that would argue that the English numbers were significantly less. Maybe the figures were exaggerated as part of Scotland’s pro-independence propaganda and was designed to motivate more Scots to the cause.
In any case, the Scots were seriously outnumbered but it did not deter them from taking on this English army. The English army had advanced into Scotland on what can only be described as yet another punitive campaign. When John Comyn got wind of their encampment in the Roslin area, he and his small army travelled twenty miles overnight. Before first light they pounced on the English army, slaughtering the vast majority and taking some high value prisoners as bargaining chips.
Whilst the Scots were dividing the spoils of war, the second division of the English army had been alerted by some of the fleeing soldiers.
Comyn hadn’t realised that there was yet another part to this army. Quickly replacing their horses with English horses and redistributing captured weapons to their vassals, Comyn prepared his men for this onslaught. Remember the Scots had ridden and marched overnight so would already be tired. The second battle lasted longer than the first and it was bloodier. There were more Scottish casualties in this second round of fighting but against the odds, the Scots were victorious. They achieved this by the inspirational and motivational leadership of John Comyn and his right-hand man, Simon Fraser.
When the Scots realised that there was a third division on its way, they put all of the English prisoners to the sword. It is little wonder that the shallow stream that ran through the battle area became known as the Kill Burn as it ran with blood for three days afterwards. Some question why the English would have divided up their forces in the first place. But this was standard practice particularly where there were huge numbers of troops. They would have encamped each division in a different area to provide more space. Also, it is most likely that this English army was split up to go in different directions with different objectives.
At the end of the third battle, it has been suggested that fewer than 3,000 English actually survived. This means that if the high figure of 30,000 English troops fought at the Battle of Roslin, then up to 27,000 were killed by the Scots. And this by a force of no more than 8,000. Therefore, it is debateable that the Scots fought a force that was three times their size. However, it cannot be denied that this battle was a major battle that seriously increased support for Comyn and his fight for independence.
But as with any defeat of this nature, King Edward I of England would not let this go unanswered. The following year in 1304, he raised another huge army which he led personally into Scotland. He laid waste wherever he went, capturing castles and fortresses placing English Lords in charge of them. Scottish nobles were forced into pleading loyalty to him. The following year in 1305, William Wallace who had long been a ‘thorn in his side’ was betrayed by a Scottish noble, John Stewart of Mentieth. As a warning to the Scots, Wallace was taken to London where he was tried and brutally executed.
So, perhaps because of the events that took place in the years immediately after the Battle of Roslin and Edward’s dominance over Scotland, the battle faded into insignificance.
Interestingly, the area of the battle site is now farmland and consists of Research Centres which are part of the University of Edinburgh. The Roslin Institute which is where ‘Dolly the Sheep’ was conceived, sits on the western edge of the battlefield. In fact, the institute is no more as it has been bulldozed to make way for a new housing development. Not far from here there is an area called Shinbanes Fields. From time to time, in centuries gone by, farmers would find human bones when ploughing the fields. This could explain the unusual name ‘Shinbanes’ meaning shin bones.
Other place names in the area include Hewan Bog and Stinking Rig. It is believed that both names were given as it is where many of the English were hewn down in battle. Their bodies were afterwards buried in the area and thus we have the name Stinking Rig because of the rancid smell that emanated from there.
As a keen metal detectorist, I have approached the University of Edinburgh seeking permission to detect on the land. However, all requests have been declined. Perhaps that is best because it is quite possible that the area could be a mass burial site. But if it were ever to be excavated what secrets could it throw up? Certainly, when archaeologists and historians have investigated the area of the Battle of Bannockburn they have turned up very little physical evidence of a battle taking place there.
But the area of the Battle of Roslin could literally be a treasure trove of information that would throw so much more light on the way battles were fought back in the early 14th century.
If this is something that would be of interest to visitors to the Edinburgh area, then this can be incorporated into a visit to Rosslyn Chapel. From Rosslyn Chapel it is only a short 10-minute walk to the Battle of Roslin monument. The scenery is beautiful and it is so peaceful. This can be included in our Rosslyn Chapel tour or a tailored tour to your requirement. Check out our Tours page on our website.
Other Areas of Interest Nearby
Also nearby is Hawthornden Castle which has some underground caves, said to have been used by both Robert the Bruce and William Wallace during different times. Further out from Roslin, is the small village of Temple which can lay claim to being one of the earliest sites used by the Knights Templar when they were outlawed on mainland Europe.